Atrial fibrillation and associated outcomes in patients with peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis: a 14-year nationwide population-based study



Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing dialysis have increased risks of atrial fibrillation (AF).


To investigate dialysis-related incident AF and associated outcomes.


Patients with dialysis were retrieved using data from Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database during 2001–2013. Patients were separated into peritoneal dialysis (PD) and hemodialysis (HD) according to their initial modality. Primary outcome was new-onset AF. Secondary outcomes were AF-associated ischemic stroke (IS)/systemic embolism (SE) and hemorrhagic stroke.


A total of 158,910 dialytic patients were retrieved. After exclusion criteria, a total of 117,023 patients with ESRD undergoing dialysis were separated into 12,659 patients on PD and 104,364 patients on HD. There were 458 PD patients with subsequent development of AF, and 6216 HD patients with subsequent development of AF. At end of follow-up, patients on PD and HD had AF incidence densities of 7.8 and 8.8 events per 1000 person-years, the SHR of PD versus HD was 0.83 (95% CI 0.73–0.94). The SHR of PD versus HD was 1.07 (95% CI 0.80–1.44) for IS/SE and the SHR of PD versus HD was 0.34 (95% CI 0.13–0.90) for hemorrhagic stroke.


In patients with ESRD undergoing dialysis, PD had lowered risks of new onset of AF compared to HD. Subsequently, these AF patients in PD group had comparable incidence of ischemic stroke but decreased incidence of hemorrhagic stroke compared to AF patients in HD group. PD could be the most suitable modality in patients at risk for the onset of AF.